Saving Penney’s

Can a fading, old-line American retailer be rescued by the Internet?

Since the turn of the past century, when James Cash Penney opened his first department store in Kemmerer, Wyoming, J. C. Penney has been a fixture on small-town Main Street and in suburban shopping malls. For baby boomers growing up in the fifties and sixties, shopping for school clothes or holiday gifts at the local downtown Penney’s was an annual ritual. With a dominant position in the market and little competition, the Plano-based J. C. Penney Company prospered. But in recent years the company has fallen on hard times. Sales at its 1,100 locations (142 in Texas) have been flat for five years while more aggressive retailers like Wal-Mart, Target, and Kohl’s have been steadily growing. During last year’s fourth quarter, which saw the hottest holiday retail season in years, Penney’s retail and catalog profits fell 31 percent. Since 1998, the company has fired more than five thousand employees, closed or announced the closure of 120 stores, and watched its stock lose nearly three fourths of its value (from $50.65 on July 6, 1998, to $18.44 on July 3, 2000).But while the world looks bleaker and bleaker from the aging retailer’s sales counters, profits are now rolling in from a most unexpected place: the Internet. In spite of all of its other problems, so many customers are clicking down the virtual aisles of JCPenney.com that the company’s Internet sales hit $47 million in this year’s first quarter, up from $6 million a year ago. The company recently raised its forecast for this year’s Internet sales to $280 million from $260 million—more than double the $102 million in online sales in 1999. By 2003 the company expects its e-commerce business to hit the $1 billion mark. “Penney’s is doing it right on the Internet, which is a heck of a lot more than one can say about their department stores,” says Kurt Barnard of Barnard’s Retail Trend Report, which forecasts retail industry trends.

Ironically, the vast physical infrastructure that sometimes seems such a liability is suddenly a strength. Penney’s e-commerce has gotten a huge boost from its fourteen telemarketing centers, six giant distribution centers, and two thousand catalog desks in Penney’s stores and Eckerd drugstores ( J. C. Penney acquired the chain in 1997), where customers can pick up or return merchandise purchased over the Internet.

Internet trade is just about the only thing that is going well for Vanessa Castagna, the former senior vice president of Wal-Mart Stores who was brought in last year as Penney’s chief operating officer as part of a massive effort to turn the aging company around. Though Castagna did not start the e-commerce unit, she has encouraged it and allowed it to stay independent, away from a culture often criticized as stodgy and stifling. “They got good people to run it, people who understand what the Internet is all about,” Barnard says. “The e-commerce operation was able to function independently and without any interference or influence from the brick-and-mortar fuddy-duddies.”

The Internet organization was formed in May 1998 and is run by 34-year-old Paul Pappajohn, who joined the company from WashingtonPost.Newsweek Interactive last November with a background not in retailing but in interactive technology. Late last year he set up shop in an office building in North Dallas miles away from Penney’s sprawling corporate campus in Plano. “It gives us some autonomy and a little bit more freedom to build and develop an Internet culture,”

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