STATE POLITICS OFTEN AMOUNTS TO ARGUING over money. More money for fixing bridges can mean less money for fixing schools. During those debates, it’s easy to think that if there were only more money, the arguments would disappear or never arise in the first place. But don’t believe it. With the settlement of the suit between Texas and five big tobacco companies, Texas received a commitment for $15 billion of free money from the tobacco companies to be paid over 25 years. The result has been political feuding between Republicans and Democrats that rivals the old-time feuding of John Connally and Ralph Yarborough or Allan Shivers and Lyndon Johnson.
The feuding began over who got to appropriate the money in the settlement. When Attorney General Dan Morales filed the suit in March 1996, the Legislature either ignored him or looked on in apathy, if not contempt. The general opinion was that Morales had almost no chance of succeeding. After he won, Morales decided that the money was his to spend. For several glorious weeks early in the year, his office issued a stream of happy press releases that detailed the grants he was bestowing on institutions in the state for work on public health, particularly among juveniles. Meanwhile, the Legislature found it impossible to ignore $15 billion. After a few skirmishes, Morales, Republican senator Bill Ratliff, who is the chair of the Senate Finance Committee, and Democratic state representative Rob Junell, the chair of the House Appropriations Committee, announced an agreement in which Morales let the Legislature decide how to spend the first payment from the tobacco settlement. But why did Morales, who clearly loved his role as beneficent savior of the children of Texas, cave in so easily? That brings us to the real fight, which promises to be deadly. It isn’t over the big money—that is, the $15 billion—but over the smaller sum of $2.3 billion that has been designated for lawyers’ fees.
Morales contracted with five lawyers and their law firms to try his case against the tobacco companies. The outside lawyers accepted the case for a contingency fee of 15 percent of any judgment plus expenses. If there was no judgment, they would get nothing, not even reimbursement for expenses.
These are the lawyers and firms Morales hired: Walter Umphrey of Beaumont; John M. O’Quinn, P.C., of Houston; John Eddie Williams, Jr., of Houston; Reaud, Morgan, and Quinn of Beaumont; and the Nix Law Firm of Daingerfield. Depending on your point of view, they are either the Mount Rushmore or the rogues’ gallery of the Texas plaintiffs’ bar. O’Quinn has been reprimanded by the State Bar of Texas for improperly soliciting clients, and the Nix Law Firm represents the plaintiffs in a fantastical and endless mass products-liability lawsuit in Daingerfield (“The Lawsuit From Hell,” June 1996). These lawyers happen to be large contributors to Democratic party causes. They are also, judging by their contributions to him, ardent supporters of Dan Morales. But why should Morales hire his enemies? And even their detractors agree that these are formidable lawyers.
And Morales needed lawyers who had the resources to fight the battle—that is to say, lawyers who were rich. Two years ago, when the suit began, tobacco had not paid a single dollar in damages anywhere in the United States, and its legal tactics produced long, numbing, and expensive lawsuits. Indeed, the outside lawyers are claiming about $40 million in expenses. Critics say this figure is much too high and should be carefully audited. But even assuming the claimed expenses are double what they should be, that still leaves $20 million in expenses, about $1 million a month that the attorneys had to pay out of their own pockets. The outside attorneys were risking all this in a case whose legal basis was, at best, tricky. Texas had allowed the legal sale of cigarettes and collected taxes on every package, which gave the state an interest in actually increasing the sale of cigarettes. Now Texas was turning around and saying the tobacco companies owed Texas money for the harm cigarettes had done. It was as if Texas, after legalizing the lottery and advertising the lottery and taking money from the lottery, were to turn around and sue the operators of the lottery for the cost of caring for compulsive gamblers.
The lawyers Morales hired won. The quality of their lawyering is proved by the very size of the settlement, which is by far the largest of any kind in the history of the United States. The position of the outside attorneys is simple. They say they had a contract, their performance under that contract was successful, and now they want to be paid what they are due. Furthermore, their fees are separate from the $15 billion and do not affect it in any way.
But not so fast. The sheer size of the fees was enough to create real outrage. John Cornyn, the former justice of the Texas Supreme Court who is running for the Republican nomination for attorney general, filed suit to challenge the validity of the lawyers’ contract. A group of seven state representatives and senators (five Republicans and two Democrats) headed by Senator Troy Fraser of Horseshoe Bay filed a challenge to the legality of the contract and the reasonableness of the fees. Governor Bush filed a motion that, among other things, seeks an evidentiary hearing on the fees. Federal judge David Folsom in Texarkana, who presided over the original settlement, has set a hearing on these matters for March 19. The theme that dominates all these legal efforts is not really legal at all. Instead, it’s this: $2.3 billion is just too damned much money. Fraser’s filing says that this would be the fee of fifty lawyers working forty-hour weeks at $230 an hour for one hundred years.
Last August tobacco companies settled a similar case in a Florida state court for a paltry $11.3 billion, but Florida’s outside counsel had a contingency fee of